About E. coli

Presented By Marler Clark The nation’s leading law firm representing victims of E. coli and other foodborne illness outbreaks.


1. Eisenstein, Barry and Zaleznik, Dori, “Enterobacteriiaceae,” in Mandell, Douglas, & Bennett’s PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Fifth Edition, Chap. 206, pp. 2294-2310 (2000).

2.  Feng, Peter, et al., “Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria,” in BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYTICAL MANUAL (8th Ed. 2002), available online at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/BacteriologicalAnalyticalManualBAM/ucm064948.htm

3.  James M. Jay, MODERN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY at 21 (6th ed. 2000). 

4.  Griffin, Patricia and Tauxe, Robert, “The Epidemiology of Infections Caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Other Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and the Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome,” EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REVIEW, Vol. 13, pp. 60-98 (1991).

5.  Frenzen, Paul D., et al., “Economic Cost of Illness due to Escherichia coli O157 Infections in the United States,” JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION, Vol. 68, pp. 2623-2630 (2005).

6.  Bell, B.P., et al., “A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from hamburgers:  the Washington experience.” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 272, pp. 1349-1353 (1994).

7.  Bala Swaminathan, et al., “PulseNet: Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 382-89 (May-June 2001).

8.  Konno T. et al., “Application of a multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis to regional outbreak surveillance of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections,” JAPANESE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 63-5 (January 2011).

9.  Riley, LW, et al., “Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 308, No. 12, pp. 681, 684-85 (1983).

10.  Feng, Peter, “Escherichia coli Serotype O157:H7: Novel Vehicles of Infection and Emergence of Phenotypic Variants,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 1, No. 2, at 47 (April-June 1995).

11.  Keene, William E.,  et al., “A Swimming-Associated Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Colitis Caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella Sonnei,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 331, at 579 (Sept. 1, 1994). 

12.  Ostroff, Stephen M., et al., “Infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Washington State: The First Year of Statewide Disease Surveillance,” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 262, No. 3, at 355 (July 21, 1989).

13.  Rangel, Josefa M., et al., “Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 11, No. 4, 603 (April 2005).

14.  Johannes, L, “Shiga toxins, from cell biology to biomedical applications,” NATIONAL REVIEW OF MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 8, pp. 105-16 (2010).

15.  Suh, J.K., et al., “Shiga Toxin Attacks Bacterial Ribosomes as Effectively as Eucaryotic Ribosomes,” BIOCHEMISTRY, Vol. 37, No. 26, pp. 9394–398 (1998).

16.  Sandvig, K, “Pathways followed by ricin and Shiga toxin into cells,” HISTOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 131-141 (2002). 

17.  Welinder-Olsson, C and Kaijser, B, “Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC),” SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol. 37, pp. 405-16 (2005). 

18.  Kaper, J.B. and Karmali, M.A., “The Continuing Evolution of a Bacterial Pathogen,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4535-4536 (March 2008).

19.  Wick, L.M., et al., “Evolution of genomic content in the stepwise emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Vol. 187, pp. 1783–1791 (2005).

20.  Zhang, W, et al., “Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Escherichia coli O157 by single nucleotide polymorphisms,” GENOME RESEARCH, Vol. 16, pp. 757–67 (2006).  The full-text of this article is available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1473186/pdf/757.pdf

21.  Robins-Browne, R.M., “The relentless evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli,” CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 41, pp. 793–94 (2005).

22.  Manning S.D., et al., “Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4868-73 (2008). 

23.  Tauxe, Robert A., “Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving Public Health Challenge,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 425-427 (Oct.-Dec. 1997).

24.  CDC, “Multistate Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Associated with Eating Ground Beef—United States, June-July 2002,” MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REVIEW, Vol. 51, at 638 (2002) reprinted in JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 288, No. 6, 690 (Aug. 14, 2002).

25.  Scallan, E, et al., “Foodborne illness acquired in the United States –major pathogens,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 17, No. 1, (Jan. 2011), available at:  http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/17/1/7.htm.

26.  Su, Chinyu Su &Brandt,  Lawrence “Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in Humans,” ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINCE, Vol.123, Issue 9, pp. 698-707 (1995).

27.  Juneja, V.K., et al., “Thermal Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Hamburger,” JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION, Vol. 60, No. 10, pp. 1163-1166 (1997).

28.  Griffin, Patricia M.,  et al., “Large Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections in the Western United States: The Big Picture,” in RECENT ADVANCES IN VEROCYTOTOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI INFECTIONS, at 7 (M.A. Karmali & A. G. Goglio eds. 1994).

29.  Boyce, T.G., et al., “Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 333, pp. 364-368 (1995).

30.  Breuer, T, et al., “A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 7, pp. 977-982 (2001).

31.  Friedman, M.S., et al., “Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with an Improperly Chlorinated Swimming Pool,”  CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 298-303 (1999). 

32.  Cody, S.H., et al., “An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice,”  ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Vol. 130, No. 3, pp. 202-9 (1999).

33.  Siegler, Richard, “The Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome,” PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, Vol. 42, p. 1505 (Dec. 1995)

34.  Chandler, W.L., et al., “Prothrombotic Coagulation Abnormalities Preceding the Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 346, No. 1, pp. 23-32 (2002).

35.  Elder, R.O., et al., “Correlation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcasses of beef cattle during processing,” USDA Agricultural Research Service, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (2000). http://www.pnas.org/content/97/7/2999.long

36.  Keen, J.E., et al., “Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in agricultural fair livestock, United States,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 780-86 (2003).

37.  King, L.J., Testimony on CDC Food Safety Activities and the Recent E. coli Spinach Outbreak, Hearing Before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, United States Senate,  Nov. 15, 2006, available online at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t061115.html

38.  McCarthy, T.A., et al., “Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome and Escherichia coli O121 at a Lake in Connecticut, 1999,” PEDIATRICS, vol. 108, pp. e59-59 (2001).

39.  Mead, Paul M., et al., “Food-related Illness and Death in the United States,”  EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 5, pp. 607-625 (1999).

40.  Olsen, S.J., et al., “A Waterborne Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Implications for Rural Water Systems,”  MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REVIEW, Vol. 8, No. 4 (April 2002). The full text of article is available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol8no4/00-0218.htm
41.  Slutsker, L, et al., “A nationwide case-control study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in the United States,” JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol. 177, pp. 962-966 (1998). 

42.  Tarr, Philip, “Escherichia coli O157:H7:  Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Aspects of Human Infection,”  CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol. 20, pp. 1-10 (1995).

43.  Wong, C.S., et al., “The risk of the hemolytic uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 342, pp.1930-36 (2000).

44.  Safdar, Nasia, et al., “Risk of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome After Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Enteritis: A Meta-analysis,” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 288, No. 8, pp. 996 (Aug. 28, 2002). 

45.  Garg, Amit X, et al., “Long-term Renal Prognosis of Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-regression,” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. 290, No. 10, p. 1360 (Sept. 10, 2003).

46.  Siegler, Richard, “Postdiarrheal Shiga Toxin-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome,” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol. No. 10, p. 1379 (Sept. 10, 2003).

47.  Robitaille, Pierre, et al., “Pancreatic Injury in the Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome,” PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, Vol. 11, pp. 631-32 (1997).

48.  Bell, Beth, et al., “Predictors of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children During a Large Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections,” PEDIATRICS, Vol. 100, No. 1, p. 1 (July 1, 1997), full text available online at http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/100/1/e12

49.  Marshall, J., et al., “Incidence and Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome After a Large Waterborne Outbreak of Bacterial Dysentery,” GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol. 131, pp. 445-50 (2006).

50.  Hungin, A., et al., “Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the United States: Prevalence, Symptom Patterns and Impact,” ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, Vol. 21, No. 11, pp. 1365-75, (2005). Online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932367

51.  Pollock, KG, et al., “Emotional and behavioral changes in parents of children affected by hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli: a qualitative analysis,” PYSCHOSOMATICS, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 263-9 (May-June 2009).

52.  Boxrud, D., “Genetic Testing,” Food Safety News, August 31, 2006, online at http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2009/08/genetic-testing-1/

53.  Boxrud D, et al., “Comparison of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and phage typing for subtype analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 536-43 (Feb. 2007).

54.  CDC, “Recommendations for Diagnosis of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections by Clinical Laboratories,” MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REVIEW, Vol. 88, No. RR-12 (Oct. 16, 2009), available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5812.pdf

55.  CDC, “Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli:  burden and trends.” FOODNET NEWS, Winter 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/FoodNet/news/2008/January_FoodNet_News.pdf

56.  Brooks, J. T., E. G. Sowers, J. G. Wells, K. D. Greene, P. M. Griffin, R. M. Hoekstra, and N. A. Strockbine.,“Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in the United States, 1983-2002.” J. INFECT DIS. 192:1422-9 (2005) available online at http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/uploads/file/466536_web%5B1%5D.pdf

57.  Johnson, K. E., C. M. Thorpe, and C. L. Sears. “The Emerging Clinical Importance of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli” CLIN INFECT DIS. 43:1587-95 (2006) available online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/12/1587.full.pdf+html

58.  Hussein, H. S. “Prevalence and pathogenicity of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle and their products.” J ANIM SCI. 85:E63-72 (2007) available online at http://jas.fass.org/content/85/13_suppl/E63.full.pdf

59.  Hussein, H. S. and T. Sakuma, “Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy cattle and their products.” J DAIRY SCI. 88:450-65 (2005) abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15653509

60.  Fratamico, P.  “Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Associated with Muscle Foods. Meeting abstract.”  P.195.02.  (2007) available online at http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=210878

61.  Barkocy-Gallagher, G. A., T. M. Arthur, M. Rivera-Betancourt, X. Nou, S. D. Shackelford, T. L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. “Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 serotypes, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants.”  J FOOD PROT. 66:1978-86 (2003) available online at http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/54380530/2003661978.pdf

62.  Hussein, H. S. and L. M. Bollinger. “Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef.”  MEAT SCI. 71:676-89 (2005) available for purchase online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0309174005002032

63.  Samadpour, M., V. Beskhlebnaya, and W. Marler. “Prevalence of non-O157 enterohaemmorrhagic Escherichia coli in retail ground beef in the United States.” 7th International Symposium on Shiga Toxin (Verocytoxin)-producing Escherichia coli Infections. Buenos Aires, Argentina. (2009) available at http://www.marlerblog.com/uploads/file/PREVALENCE%20OF%20NON.pdf

64.  Bosilevac J. M., M. N. Guerini, D. M. Brichta-Harhay, T. M. Arthur, and M. Koohmaraie. “Microbiological characterization of imported and domestic boneless beef trim used for ground beef.” J FOOD PROT. 70:440-9 (2007) available online at http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/54380530/2007700440.pdf

65.  Rasko, D.A. et al. “Origins of the E. coli Strain Causing an Outbreak of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome in Germany.”  N ENGL J MED 365:709-717 (2011) available online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1106920

66.  Wong, C.S. et al.  “Risk Factors for the Hemolyic Uremic Syndrome in Children Infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7:  a Multivariable Analysis”.  CLIN INFECT DIS first published online March 19, 2012 doi:10.1093/cid/cis299 available for purchase online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/03/16/cid.cis299.full.pdf+html

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